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Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay/Neuter in Dogs

This is a collection of links and number of subjects, when available, to the references provided in Laura Sanborn's white paper on sterilization of dogs, as discussed on our spay/neuter page. Items without a link were not found online.

  1. Burrow R, Batchelor D, Cripps P. Complications observed during and after ovariohysterectomy of 142 bitches at a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Rec. 2005 Dec 24-31;157(26):829-33.
    142 bitches
  2. Pollari FL, Bonnett BN, Bamsey, SC, Meek, AH, Allen, DG (1996) Postoperative complications of elective surgeries in dogs and cats determined by examining electronic and medical records. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208, 1882-1886
    1,016 dogs/1,459 cats
  3. Dorn AS, Swist RA. (1977) Complications of canine ovariohysterectomy. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 13, 720-724
  4. Pollari FL, Bonnett BN. Evaluation of postoperative complications following elective surgeries of dogs and cats at private practices using computer records. Can Vet J. 1996 November; 37(11): 672–678.
    Precise number of subjects not given in abstract; data taken on all elective surgeries from 5 private practices
  5. Teske E, Naan EC, van Dijk EM, van Garderen E, Schalken JA. Canine prostate carcinoma: epidemiological evidence of an increased risk in castrated dogs. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002 Nov 29;197(1-2):251-5.
    15,363 male dogs
  6. Sorenmo KU, Goldschmidt M, Shofer F, Ferrocone J. Immunohistochemical characterization of canine prostatic carcinoma and correlation with castration status and castration time. Vet Comparative Oncology. 2003 Mar; 1 (1): 48
    70 dogs
  7. Weaver, AD. Fifteen cases of prostatic carcinoma in the dog. Vet Rec. 1981; 109, 71-75.
    (No abstract)
  8. Cohen D, Reif JS, Brodey RS, et al: Epidemiological analysis of the most prevalent sites and types of canine neoplasia observed in a veterinary hospital. Cancer Res 34:2859-2868, 1974
    60,000 dogs (interestingly, this looked at Boxers vs. non-Boxers and noted a higher incidence of almost all cancers in Boxers - from 1952 to 1963)
  9. Theilen GH, Madewell BR. Tumors of the genital system. Part II. In:Theilen GH, Madewell BR, eds. Veterinary cancer medicine. 2nd ed.Lea and Febinger, 1987:583–600.
  10. Glickman LT, Glickman N, Thorpe R. The Golden Retriever Club of America National Health Survey 1998-1999
    1,444 dogs
  11. Handbook of Small Animal Practice, 3rd ed
  12. Hayes HM Jr, Pendergrass TW. Canine testicular tumors: epidemiologic features of 410 dogs. Int J Cancer 1976 Oct 15;18(4):482-7
    410 dogs
  13. Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. (1998) Host-related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 1998 Jul;156(1):31-9
    3,062 dogs (3,959 controls)
  14. Cooley DM, Beranek BC, Schlittler DL, Glickman NW, Glickman LT, Waters DJ. Endogenous gonadal hormone exposure and bone sarcoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002 Nov;11(11):1434-40.
    683 dogs
  15. Moe L. Population-based incidence of mammary tumours in some dog breeds. J of Reproduction and Fertility Supplment 57, 439-443.
    14,401(+) dogs
  16. Ferguson HR; Vet Clinics of N Amer: Small Animal Practice; Vol 15, No 3, May 1985
    No abstract - only online back to 2002
  17. MacEwen EG, Patnaik AK, Harvey HJ Estrogen receptors in canine mammary tumors. Cancer Res., 42: 2255-2259, 1982.
    67 lesions
  18. Schneider, R, Dorn, CR, Taylor, DON. Factors Influencing Canine Mammary Cancer Development and Postsurgical Survival. J Natl Cancer Institute, Vol 43, No 6, Dec. 1969
    No abstract - online only back to 1988
  19. Feinleib M: Breast cancer and artificial menopause: A cohort study. J Nat Cancer Inst 41: 315-329, 1968.
    No abstract - online only back to 1988
  20. Dorn CR and Schneider R. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer. A retrospective study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 57: 545-548, 1976.
    No numbers given in abstract - online only back to 1988
  21. Brodey RS: Canine and feline neoplasia. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 14:309-354, 1970
    No abstract - journal not currently online
  22. Hayes A, Harvey H J: Treatment of metastatic granulosa cell tumor in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:1304-1306, 1979
    1 dog (case study)
  23. Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VE, Withrow SJ. J Vet Intern Med 1992 May; 6(3):145-53
    115 dogs
  24. Prymak C, McKee LJ, Goldschmidt MH, Glickman LT. Epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and prognostic characteristics of splenic hemangiosarcoma and splenic hematoma in dogs: 217 cases (1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988 Sep; 193(6):706-12
    217 dogs
  25. Ware WA, Hopper, DL. Cardiac Tumors in Dogs: 1982-1995. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13:95–103.
    729,265 dogs (1,383 with cardiac tumors)
  26. Panciera DL. Hypothyroidism in dogs: 66 cases (1987-1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1994 Mar 1;204(5):761-7 66 dogs
  27. Panciera DL. Canine hypothyroidism. Part I. Clinical findings and control of thyroid hormone secretion and metabolism. Compend Contin Pract Vet 1990: 12: 689-701.
    No abstract - online only back to 2001
  28. Glickman LT, Glickman N, Raghaven M, The Akita Club of America National Health Survey 2000-2001.
    603 dogs
  29. Glickman LT, HogenEsch H, Raghavan M, Edinboro C, Scott-Moncrieff C. Final Report to the Hayward Foundation and The Great Dane Health Foundation of a Study Titled Vaccinosis in Great Danes. 1 Jan 2004.
    75 dogs
  30. Edney AT, Smith PM. Study of obesity in dogs visiting veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec. 1986 Apr 5;118(14):391-6.
    8,268 dogs
  31. McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Pride C, Fawcett A, Grassi T, Jones B. Prevalence of obesity in dogs examined by Australian veterinary practices and the risk factors involved. Vet Rec. 2005 May 28;156(22):695-702. 2,661 dogs
  32. Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk, CA, Klausner, JS. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Obesity in Adult Dogs from Private US Veterinary Practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med • Vol. 4, No. 2, 2006.
    21,754 dogs (full article, PDF)
  33. Marmor M, Willeberg P, Glickman LT, Priester WA, Cypess RH, Hurvitz AI. Epizootiologic patterns of diabetes mellitus in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1982 Mar;43(3):465-70.
    1,468 dogs
  34. Moore GE, Guptill LF, Ward MP, Glickman NW, Faunt KF, Lewis HB, Glickman LT. Adverse events diagnosed within three days of vaccine administration in dogs. JAVMA Vol 227, No 7, Oct 1, 2005
    1,226,159 dogs
  35. Thrusfield MV, Holt PE, Muirhead RH. Acquired urinary incontinence in bitches: its incidence and relationship to neutering practices. J Small Anim Pract. 1998. Dec;39(12):559-66.
    809 bitches
  36. Stocklin-Gautschi NM, Hassig M, Reichler IM, Hubler M, Arnold S. The relationship of urinary incontinence to early spaying in bitches. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2001;57:233-6.
    206 bitches
  37. Arnold S, Arnold P, Hubler M, Casal M, and Rόsch P. Urinary Incontinence in spayed bitches: prevalence and breed disposition. European Journal of Campanion Animal Practice. 131, 259-263.
    412 bitches
  38. Thrusfield MV 1985 Association between urinary incontinence and spaying in bitches. Vet Rec 116 695
    No abstract available
  39. Richter KP, Ling V. Clinical response and urethral pressure profile changes after phenypropanolamine in dogs with primary sphincter incompetence. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985: 187: 605-611.
    19 dogs
  40. Holt PE. Urinary incontinence in dogs and cats. Vet Rec 1990: 127: 347-350.
    No numbers given in abstract
  41. Seguin MA, Vaden SL, Altier C, Stone E, Levine JF (2003) Persistent Urinary Tract Infections and Reinfections in 100 Dogs (1989–1999). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine: Vol. 17, No. 5 pp. 622–631.
    100 dogs
  42. Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Houpt KA. Long-term risks and benefits of early-age gonadectomy in dogs. JAVMA 2004;224:380-387.
    1,842 dogs
  43. Verstegen-Onclin K, Verstegen J. Non-reproductive Effects of Spaying and Neutering: Effects on the Urogenital System. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Non-Surgical Contraceptive Methods for Pet Population Control.
    27 dogs
  44. Hagman R: New aspects of canine pyometra. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 2004.
    >200,000 dogs (full thesis, PDF)
  45. Chastain CB, Panciera D, Waters C: Associations between age, parity, hormonal therapy and breed, and pyometra in Finnish dogs. Small Anim Endocrinol 1999; 9: 8.
    953 dogs (10,660 controls)
  46. Killingsworth CR, Walshaw R, Dunstan RW, Rosser, EJ. Bacterial population and histologic changes in dogs with perianal fistula. Am J Vet Res, Vol 49, No. 10, Oct 1988.
    44 dogs
  47. Johnston SD, Kamolpatana K, Root-Kustritz MV, Johnston GR, Prostatic disorders in the dog. Anim Reprod. Sci Jul 2;60-61:405-415.
    Numbers not given in abstract
  48. Dannuccia GA, Martin RB., Patterson-Buckendahl P Ovariectomy and trabecular bone remodeling in the dog. Calcif Tissue Int 1986; 40: 194-199.
    14 dogs
  49. Martin RB, Butcher RL, Sherwood L,L Buckendahl P, Boyd RD, Farris D, Sharkey N, Dannucci G. Effects of ovariectomy in beagle dogs. Bone 1987; 8:23-31
    15 dogs
  50. Salmeri KR, Bloomberg MS, Scruggs SL, Shille V. Gonadectomy in immature dogs: Effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development. JAVMA, Vol 198, No. 7, April 1991.
    32 dogs
  51. Whitehair JG, Vasseur PB, Willits NH. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993 Oct 1;203(7):1016-9.
    10,769 dogs (591,548 controls)
  52. Glickman LT, Airedale Terrier Club of America, Airedale Terrier Health Survey 2000-2001
    519 dogs
  53. van Hagen MA, Ducro BJ, van den Broek J, Knol BW. Incidence, risk factors, and heritability estimates of hind limb lameness caused by hip dysplasia in a birth cohort of boxers. Am J Vet Res. 2005 Feb;66(2):307-12.
    1,733 Boxers
  54. B. Vidoni, I. Sommerfeld-Stur und E. Eisenmenger: Diagnostic and genetic aspects of patellar luxation in small and miniature breed dogs in Austria. Wien.Tierarztl.Mschr. (2005) 92, p170 – 181
    432 dogs (full text, PDF)
  55. Hart BL. Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001 Jul 1;219(1):51-6.
    139 dogs


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